There is New Science that holds vital clues to Obese patients
Okay we all know that we need….the basics, less food, more exercise right!!!
Generally we eat 200 calories more than we need each day than in previous generations so we need to fix this but new research is now scientifically proving why its so much harder for some people to loose weight
The problem seems to be the message that tells our bodies:
What to eat
When to eat it and How much to eat seems to be distorted, so how can we control it?
Yes we can………..How you ask??
Studies have found that some of the answers lie within our hormones according to Dr Carl the worlds leading obesity scientists imperial college in London some of our bodies chemical messengers are hormones. They are our fight or flight responses
There are two hormones that work together to control appetite, they are
Ghrelin, The fullness hormone
PYY, The Hunger Hormone
They work together to control appetite and weight. The gut talks to the brain to say “stop” eating or “eat more”, its virtually will power against hormones that’s why its so difficult for the over weight
With some fasting and exercise tests where there was no food to be consumed until the following morning the hormones and will power begin to fight with each other you will become distracted, grumpy and indecisive when hungry and when you are really hungry food is all you can think about
In a thin person these hormones rise and fall after eating as they should as does the fullness hormone
In an obese person the hunger hormone stays at the same level and then rises it stays on all the time so after eating a full meal they don’t feel full, the fullness hormone therefore doesn’t kick in
Biology and will power
Its been a common belief that will power is the long lasting reason for people keeping thin and not being obese however new studies called EPI Genetics now show that there are other factors in life that can vary a persons hormones such as
- High stress at an early stage of life
So how do we change those Genes? It can be reversed
Exercise affects epigenetics of fat storage
Exercise directly affects which genes are expressed or silenced, causing fat cells to function differently, according to a study in PLOS Genetics
Researchers recruited slightly overweight men in their 30,s and 40,s who led an inactive lifestyle. After six months of weekly spin classes and group aerobics, they all showed improved fitness and weight loss due to the exercise regime, despite not making changes to their normal daily tasks or diets. This may be an expected result, but interestingly, biopsies of fat tissue showed differences in the regulation of 7,663 genes, suggesting that exercise was driving epigenetic changes.
‘Our study shows the positive effects of exercise, because the epigenetic pattern of genes that affect fat storage in the body changes’, says Dr Charlotte Ling, from Lund University in Sweden, who led the research.
Epigenetics is the study of how changes in our environment influence the regulation of our genes. This can affect how cells function and there is evidence to suggest these changes can be linked to lifestyle-related diseases. One epigenetic mechanism is DNA methylation, where methyl groups on DNA prevent gene transcription, silencing gene expression. Levels of DNA methylation in the fat tissue of the 23 volunteers were analysed and changes in MRNA expression monitored. The team found that 7,663 genes were differently methylated in fat tissue as a direct effect of exercise.
Dr Ling’s group focused on three genes which showed increased levels of DNA methylation after exercise and have been previously linked to type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity. In vitro assays were used to confirm the gene-silencing effect of DNA methylation.
‘We found changes in those genes too, which suggests that altered DNA methylation as a result of physical activity could be one of the mechanisms of how these genes affect the risk of disease’, says Tina Rönn, who conducted the study.
It is important to note that this study was performed in a relatively small trial cohort. The absolute changes in DNA methylation in response to exercise were modest, but Dr Ling argues that the large number of sites of methylation found on different genes could contribute to an overall physiological response.
More than one billion people worldwide are now categorised as obese and there is a clear link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. Understanding the underlying genetic profiles of these disorders, and how epigenetic factors such as exercise can alter gene expression may one day suggest new strategies for targeted therapies.
Diet During Early Development Can Cause Changes Lasting Into Adulthood
Your mother’s diet during pregnancy and what you’re fed as an infant can cause critical changes that stick with you into adulthood. Animal studies have shown that deficiency of methyl-donating folate or choline during late fetal or early postnatal development causes certain regions of the genome to be under-methylated for life.
For adults, a methyl deficient diet still leads to a decrease in DNA methylation, but the changes are reversible with resumption of a normal diet.
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